Data is the lifeblood of today’s society, so naturally, there’s a lot of attention focused on different database tools. After all, if you have the right tools, you have the most efficient means of working with the current massive data glut and perhaps making things more manageable.

To that end, we’re taking a look at Microsoft Access. This article covers critical Microsoft Access-related points such as what Microsoft Access is, how Microsoft Access differs from Excel, the benefits and drawbacks of Microsoft Access, and how Microsoft Access is used.  

What Is Microsoft Access?

Microsoft Access is a well-known database management system produced by Microsoft and is part of the Microsoft 365 office suite. Microsoft Access combines Microsoft’s relational Jet Database Engine with software development tools and a graphic user interface (GUI). It was first released in November 1992, so it’s been around for a while. In the rapidly changing, fast-paced IT world, we can best describe a 30-year-old program as "venerable."

Microsoft Access also has the distinction of being the first mass-market database program for Windows.

Microsoft Access enables business and enterprise users to manage data and analyze vast amounts of information efficiently. The program provides a blend of database functionality and programming capabilities for creating easy-to-navigate forms.

Microsoft Access is like Microsoft Excel in that you can store, edit, and view data. However, Access has much more to offer, as we are about to see.

MS Access Features

Some of the key features of MS Access are:

User-Friendly Interface

MS Access provides a user-friendly interface that allows you to create and manage databases using a drag-and-drop interface. This makes it easy to create tables, forms, queries, and reports without requiring extensive technical knowledge.

Customizable Templates

MS Access includes a range of customizable templates that you can use as a starting point for your database. This includes templates for inventory management, customer management, project tracking, and more.

Powerful Query Designer

MS Access includes a powerful query designer that allows you to extract specific data from tables based on user-defined criteria. This includes the ability to sort, filter, and aggregate data from multiple tables.

Integrated Reporting Tools

MS Access includes integrated reporting tools that allow you to create professional-looking reports based on data from one or more tables. This includes the ability to create charts, graphs, and summaries.

Customizable Forms

MS Access allows you to create custom forms that provide a user-friendly interface for entering and viewing data in your tables. This includes the ability to add controls, such as text boxes, drop-down lists, and buttons.

Macros For Automation

MS Access includes macros that allow you to automate common tasks in your database, such as opening forms and running queries. This can save time and increase efficiency.

Customizable Code

MS Access allows you to write custom code using the Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) programming language. This allows you to create custom functions and automate complex tasks.

Collaboration Features

MS Access allows you to share your database with other users and control their access to the data. This includes the ability to assign specific permissions to individual users or groups.

Integration With Other Applications

MS Access integrates with other applications in the Microsoft Office suite, such as Excel and Word. This allows you to import and export data, as well as generate reports and charts using data from multiple sources.

Overall, MS Access provides a range of features that make it easy to create and manage databases, with a user-friendly interface, powerful query and reporting tools, and the ability to automate tasks and collaborate with others.

How Microsoft Access Differs from Excel

Before we get into the differences between Microsoft Access and Microsoft Excel, let’s review what the latter is. Microsoft Excel is a spreadsheet utility used chiefly for individual projects and performing brief, relatively simple calculations.

Excel users typically work with a limited number of data cells simultaneously, from a few dozen to a couple of hundred. As a result, excel is well suited to graph and chart such data points and calculations. But while Excel users type information directly into their spreadsheets, Access databases rely on pre-made queries and forms.

This handy reference chart highlights the chief differences between Access and Excel.



It handles all types of data, including numbers and text, and is used for collecting and sorting data.

It mainly deals with numerical data and is used for financial calculations and spreadsheets.

All data is stored in one place, at one time.

Many documents and worksheets are stored with redundant data.

It’s comparatively more flexible than Excel.

It’s relatively less flexible than Access.

It locks data only at the record level, so that multiple users can work on the same database file.

It locks the whole spreadsheet, so only one user can work with it at a time.

It isn’t easy to learn.

It’s relatively easy to learn.

It lets users build functional data templates and data entry forms.

You only work with the primary data screen.

It has a large data storage capacity because it’s built to handle database storing and manipulation.

It has a comparatively smaller data storage capacity because it’s not built for data storage.

It emphasizes accuracy and efficiency.

The format limits speed and accuracy.

It functions on a multiple relational table and sheet data model.

It works on a non-relational or flat worksheet data model.

It’s great for large-scale projects and long-term solutions.

It’s best suited for small-scale projects and short-term solutions.

So, in summary, if you want to do basic small-scale database functions, Excel spreadsheets will be sufficient for the task. If, however, you need a more elaborate, larger-scale utility that can handle vast amounts of information and accommodate multiple simultaneous users, go with Access.

How Microsoft Access is Used

Here are some of Microsoft Access’s most-used features:

  • Importing data from Excel or other databases
  • Creating forms for data entry or viewing
  • Designing and running data retrieval queries
  • Designing reports to be either printed or turned into a PDF
  • Allowing users to interact with Access via SQL

The Components of Microsoft Access

Microsoft Access is composed of the following components:

  • Tables: Access stores its data in tables, using a row and column format. Users can create one database that includes all the data of one project. This database is known as a “flat” database. More on databases later.
  • Relational Databases: Although users can place a project's data in just one database, it's typically easier to create numerous tables dedicated to a different aspect of the project. Fortunately, each table can be connected and interrelated, an arrangement known as a relational database.
  • Forms: Forms enable users to enter data into the database without relying on a spreadsheet.
  • Macros: Macros are small programming constructs consisting of commands and processes and are a huge time saver.
  • Modules. Modules are procedures, also called functions, which users can write with Visual Basic Applications.
  • Queries: Queries find information in databases, a helpful tool, considering the size of many Access databases.
  • Reports: Reports simplify the processes of sorting, labeling, summarizing, and grouping data to easily share or print.

Microsoft Access Architecture

Microsoft Access is a relational database management system (RDBMS) that provides a graphical user interface for creating and managing databases. The architecture of Microsoft Access includes the following components:


Tables are the basic building blocks of any database. They store data in rows and columns and are used to organize related information into groups. Tables in Microsoft Access can have various data types, such as text, number, date/time, etc.


Forms are used to provide a user-friendly interface for entering data into tables. They can be created using a drag-and-drop interface and can be customized using a variety of tools and controls.


Queries are used to extract specific data from tables based on user-defined criteria. They can be used to sort, filter, and aggregate data from multiple tables and can be created using a graphical query designer.


Reports are used to present data in a visually appealing format. They can be used to create summaries, charts, and graphs based on data from one or more tables.


Macros are used to automate common tasks in Microsoft Access. They can be used to perform tasks such as opening forms and running queries, and can be triggered by user actions or by events in the database.


Modules are used to write custom code in Microsoft Access using the Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) programming language. They can be used to create custom functions, automate complex tasks, and interact with other applications.


Microsoft Access includes built-in security features that allow you to control access to the database and its objects. Access supports user-level security, which allows you to assign specific permissions to individual users or groups.

Back-End Database Server

For larger databases with multiple users, Microsoft Access can be used as a front-end application that connects to a back-end database server such as Microsoft SQL Server or Oracle. This allows multiple users to access the database simultaneously and provides better scalability and performance.

Overall, the architecture of Microsoft Access is designed to provide a user-friendly and flexible environment for creating and managing databases, with a range of tools and features that allow you to customize the database to your specific needs.

The Uses of Microsoft Access

Data Storage

MS Access is used to store large amounts of data in an organized and efficient manner. It allows you to create tables, forms, queries, and reports to manage your data.

Inventory Management

MS Access is commonly used for inventory management, where it can be used to track items, their location, and other important details. It can also be used to create purchase orders and track sales.

Customer Relationship Management (CRM)

MS Access can be used for customer relationship management (CRM), where it can be used to store customer information, track interactions, and generate reports.

Project Management

MS Access can be used for project management, where it can be used to track tasks, milestones, and resources. It can also be used to generate reports on project progress.

Personnel Management

MS Access can be used for personnel management, where it can be used to store employee information, track performance, and generate reports.

Event Planning

MS Access can be used for event planning, where it can be used to manage guest lists, track RSVPs, and generate reports on event attendance.

Small Business Management

MS Access is a popular choice for small business management, where it can be used to manage finances, track inventory, and generate reports.

The Microsoft Access Database

Microsoft Access consists of two distinct types of databases:

  • First, flat file databases store data in plain text files and can't incorporate multiple tables.
  • Secondly, relational databases store data in forms that relate to each other. For example, relational databases support multiple tables, which arrange the text into columns and rows.

Additionally, the Microsoft Access database uses the following data types:

  • Attachment: Stores files like digital images
  • Auto Number: Either assigned by Access or the user when a new record is created
  • Calculated: Creates an expression that uses data from one or multiple fields
  • Currency: Stores currency values and numeric data featuring one to four decimal places
  • Date/Time: Stores date and time information for a year range between 100 and 9999
  • Hyperlink: Stores a combination of numbers and text, used as a hyperlink address
  • Long Text: Typically used for lengthy alphanumeric or text data, up to 63,999 characters
  • Numbers: Numeric data used for storing mathematical calculations
  • OLE Objects: This data encompasses audio, video, and other Binary Large Objects
  • Short Text: Stores text and numbers not used in calculations
  • Yes/No: Only stores the logical values of Yes and No

The Benefits of Microsoft Access

Microsoft Access brings many advantages to the table, including:

  • It gives users a fully functional, relational database management system in minutes
  • It’s easy to import data from multiple sources
  • It’s easily customized to fit any personal or company needs
  • The online Microsoft Access works nicely with many development languages that work on the Windows operating system
  • It’s a robust and flexible utility that can perform any demanding office or industrial database task
  • MS-Access lets users link to data in its current location and use the information for viewing, querying, updating, and reporting
  • It’s simple to install and easy to understand
  • It lets users create tables, forms, queries, and reports and connect with the aid of Macros
  • Macros in Access are simple programming constructs that helps users add functionality to their database
  • The graphical user interface (GUI) helps simplify its use
  • Microsoft Access online are able to perform heterogeneous joins between many data sets that are stored across various platforms

The Drawbacks of Microsoft Access

Of course, no application is perfect. Every product has its downside, and Microsoft Access is no exception. Its drawbacks include:

  • If too many users attempt to gain access to the same database at once, this may negatively impact the speed and efficiency. There is an apparent limit to how many people can simultaneously work on the same database.
  • Related to the first point, the Microsoft Access database is more beneficial for small-to-medium businesses but not as much for large-sized organizations.
  • There are better database systems available when working with confidential data.
  • Microsoft Access lacks the robustness found in other DBMS systems such as MS SQL Server or Oracle.
  • Since all the information from a database is saved into one file, this can slow down reports, queries, and forms.
  • Although the technical limit is 255 concurrent users, the real-world limit actually ranges from only 10 to 80, depending on the kind of application the organization is currently running.
  • Microsoft Access requires considerably more learning and training when compared with other Microsoft programs.

Versions of MS Access

Microsoft Access has been around for over 25 years, and many versions have been released during that time. Here are the major versions of Microsoft Access:

  • Access 1.0 - Released in 1992 for Windows 3.0, Access 1.0 was the first version of Access.
  • Access 2.0 - Released in 1993, Access 2.0 added several new features, including support for importing data from Excel and Lotus 1-2-3.
  • Access 95 - Released in 1995, Access 95 introduced support for VBA (Visual Basic for Applications) and OLE Object Linking and Embedding.
  • Access 97 - Released in 1997, Access 97 added support for replication and the ability to create web-based applications using Active Server Pages (ASP).
  • Access 2000 - Released in 1999, Access 2000 introduced support for the new Access project (.adp) file format and support for XML.
  • Access 2002/XP - Released in 2001, Access 2002/XP introduced a new user interface and improved support for importing and exporting data.
  • Access 2003 - Released in 2003, Access 2003 added support for new data types and the ability to create and modify XML documents.
  • Access 2007 - Released in 2007, Access 2007 introduced the ribbon interface and added support for publishing to SharePoint.
  • Access 2010 - Released in 2010, Access 2010 added support for web databases and introduced the Navigation pane.
  • Access 2013 - Released in 2013, Access 2013 introduced a new design interface and added support for web apps
  • Access 2016 - Released in 2015, Access 2016 added support for Large Number data type and TempVar objects.
  • Access 2019 - Released in 2018, Access 2019 added support for new data types, such as BigInt and Attachments, and improved user experience.

Overall, each version of Access has added new features and functionality, making it easier to manage and manipulate data. The most recent versions have added support for web-based applications, mobile devices, and cloud-based services, allowing users to access their data anywhere.

Wrapping It Up

There is no such thing as a one-size-fits-all solution; every individual or organization has its specific needs, so what works for one business won't work for another. However, Microsoft Access is a great database solution for individuals, small to medium businesses, and self-contained departments within larger companies. It's a significant step up from Excel. Check it out and see if Access is suitable for your particular needs. You can also check out the Microsoft Access download here.

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